01 Membrane Stabilizer: Stabilization decreases excitation of nerves and contraction of muscle cell membranes. This action is what keeps muscles from twitching and nerves from zapping. Specifically, it inhibits or abolishes “action potentials” from moving across a membrane. Membrane stabilization is the way local anesthetics work.
02 Protein Production: This biotech process of generating a specific protein requires magnesium. Protein production involves the manipulation of gene expression in an organism. The most recent research found that magnesium is required for the structural integrity of numerous body proteins. To date, 3,751 magnesium receptor sites have been found on human proteins.
03 RNA & DNA: Magnesium is required for the structural integrity of nucleic acids. Consequently, magnesium is a requirement for RNA and DNA production.
04 GTP: Magnesium is a cofactor for the enzyme guanosine triphosphatase. GTPase has many functions:
- signal transduction, or “switching” on specific receptor proteins located on cell membranes and transmitting that signal to trigger taste, smell, and perception of light
- protein biosynthesis
- control and differentiation of cell division
- translocation of proteins through cell membranes
- transport of vesicles within the cell and assembly of vesicle coats.
05 Phospholipase C: Magnesium is a cofactor for the enzyme phospholipase C, which is a class of enzymes that split phospholipids at the phosphate group, creating signal transduction pathways. The most important one allows calcium to enter cells. Magnesium, at a concentration ten thousand times greater than that of calcium inside the cells, allows only a certain amount of calcium to enter to create the necessary electrical transmission, and then immediately helps to eject the calcium once the job is done. Otherwise, if calcium accumulates in the cell, it triggers hyperexcitability and disrupts cell function.
06 Adenylate cyclase: Magnesium is a cofactor for the enzyme adenylate cyclase. This enzyme converts ATP to cAMP and pyrophosphate. Cyclic AMP is used for intracellular signal transduction of the effects of hormones like glucagon and adrenaline into cells because the hormones can’t pass through cell membranes. Cyclic AMP is involved in the activation of protein kinases and regulates the effects of adrenaline and glucagon. It also binds to and regulates the function of ion channels or gateways into the cell.
07 Guanylate cyclase: Magnesium is a cofactor for the enzyme guanylate cyclase. This enzyme synthesizes cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) from guanosine triphosphate (GTP) keeping cGMP-gated ion channels open, allowing calcium to enter the cell. Cyclic GMP is an important second messenger that transmits the message across cell membranes from peptide hormones and nitric oxide, and it can also function in hormone signaling. It can trigger changes requiring protein synthesis. In smooth muscle, cGMP is the signal for relaxation, which can regulate vascular and airway tone, insulin secretion, and peristalsis.